Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-08-10 Origin: 玻璃纤维专业情报信息网
From early human civilization construction to future innovation, composite materials have played an important role in the entire human history. Whenever, composite materials can make the world a better place.
The earliest use of composite materials originated from the ancient Mesopotamians around 3400 BC, who glued wooden strips at different angles to make plywood. The concept of "composite" architecture has existed since ancient times. Civilizations all over the world have used the basic materials of the surrounding environment when making houses including soil/straw and wood/clay. "Bricks" used to be, and are still made of mud and straw.
In the 12th century AD, Mongolian warriors used composite materials (bamboo, silk, beef tendon and horns, and pine resin) to make archery bows. Their bows and arrows were faster and more powerful than competitors' bows and arrows. The compressed (inside) corner of the bow And the flaky corners are covered on the bamboo core. They wrapped the structure tightly with silk and sealed it with rosin. A museum tested some surviving bows and arrows, which are more than 900 years old, and found that old bows and arrows are almost as strong as modern bows and can hit targets as far as 490 yards (the length of nearly five football fields). .
In the late 1800s, canoe builders began experimenting with different materials to make paper laminates. They tried to bond kraft paper (a strong mechanical paper made of wood pulp) with shellac. This was a good idea, but it ultimately failed because the available materials could not complete the task. Between 1870 and 1890, people developed the first synthetic (man-made) resins that could be converted from liquid to solid (using a chemical method called polymerization). These polymer resins are converted from a liquid state to a solid state by molecular cross-linking.
The 1930s ushered in a new era of resins and ultimately promoted the development of the entire composite material industry. Unsaturated polyester resin was patented by Carleton Ellis in 1936. Because of their curing (or hardening) properties, they have become the main choice for resins in composite manufacturing. By the late 1930s, other high-performance resin systems, including epoxy resins, were also available.
Leo Hendrik Baekeland, an American chemist born in Belgium, founded Bakelite, one of the earliest synthetic resins, in 1907, creating the modern era of composite materials. This resin is extremely fragile, but Baekeland found that he can soften and strengthen it by combining it with cellulose. The first commercial use of bakelite was in 1917 for the manufacture of variable-speed knobs for Rolls-Royce Motors. Better new resins were produced in the 1920s and 1930s. In the early 1930s, two American chemical companies, American Cyanamid and DuPont, further developed polymer resins. During the test, both companies independently formulated polyester resins for the first time.
In the late 1930s, Owens-Illinois Glass Company developed a process to stretch glass into thin strips or fibers and began to weave them into fabrics. These new glass fibers are combined with newer synthetic (polyester) resins to produce strong and lightweight composite materials. In 1942, Ray Greene, an engineer in Toledo, Ohio (who worked at Owens Glass Company, Illinois), made an inflatable boat out of fiberglass and polyester resin.
Although the first carbon fiber was patented in 1961, it took several years for carbon fiber composites to be commercialized. The use of carbon fiber has helped drive many applications in many industries, including aerospace, automotive, marine, and consumer products. In 1966, DuPont chemist Stephanie Kwolek invented the aramid aramid fiber Kevlar, which is strong enough to be used in advanced composite materials. Kevlar is famous for its bulletproof and stab-resistant body armor. New and improved resins have helped increase the demand for composite materials, especially in higher temperature ranges and corrosive applications. In the 1970s, the automotive market surpassed the marine market to become the largest composite market-and it still maintains this position to this day.
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